The Obu Manuvu Bantay Bukid with CENRO-Davao City staff and Forest Protection Officer Joshua Donato of EGIP Foundation pose during their regular monitoring and foot patrolling around their ancestral domain forest.
The Obu-Manuvu community through their 43 deputized Obu-Manuvu forest guards of DENR and City Government of Davao, continue their regular foot patrolling within their ancestral forest with more than 2000 hectares of tropical forest and reporting and taking action in case of violations like illegal logging, mining, poaching, etc. in coordination with the DENR and NCIP to protect their ancestral forest and known watersheds.
On August 21-23, 2018, ten (10) forest guards together with two (2) EGIPF staff were accompanied by two (2) representatives from CENRO-Davao in monitoring and patrolling their ancestral forest to personally visit the site after they received a news that there is a group of people that illegally cut the trees and establish a small village somewhere in Kalatong area.Indeed, the illegal activities were observed in the areas of Kalatong and Tabak- Carmen side, more or less 200 Has, such as forest clearing, illegal cutting of trees and timber harvesting and unauthorized building of structures. The area in AD where illegally cleared to make a ranch, was also visited. The forest guards were assisted by the CENRO staff in in gathering the needed data and information to investigate and file a case to the violators.
In addition, a substantial number of traps for fauna such as Philippine deer, Philippine warty pig and other small mammals was observed during the monitoring period. Illegal logging, timber harvesting, and kaingin/deforestation are other rampant threats that was observed during the same time frame. According to some forest guards, putting massive numbers of snare and goose traps is the traditional way of hunting forest animals as source of food or protein. However, since the actual monitoring and patrolling began, the forest guards informed the members of their community about the adverse effects of massive trapping, especially the effects on the existence of different wildlife, so trapping and hunting in the areas were eventually reduced. The magnitude of trapping described is not only wasteful but it is also poses a threat to the existence of different wildlife and a number of important species in their natural habitat. Records of several wildlife getting trapped and killed have increased during the past two decades.
As of now, report was submitted to the DENR Region Office through CENRO Davao City, NCIP, Office of the City Mayor and to the Unified Obu-Manuvu Tribal Council of Leaders and Elders. Unfortunately, those cases are still pending to be resolved and we still heard the news that another group went to the same area to do the same illegal activities.
The area of the Obu-Manuvu community is characterized by an abundance of natural endowments; pristine forests with a huge diversity of flora and fauna, fast flowing streams, creeks and meandering rivers, cascading waterfalls, etc. The newly improved farm-to-market trail passes some excellent bird watching spots and outstanding viewpoints; an iron-made hanging bridge across the clear water Panigan River and a fascinating scenery on top of community farm area in Karilongan overlooking the whole of Barangay Carmen and some part of the Davao metropolis and the Davao Gulf. One can experience the breath of fresh air and the smell of nature as well as the unique and genuine culture of Obu-Manuvu community. The existence of all these “wonders” and the potential benefits for the Obu-Manuvu community and the natural environment they protect, are the reasons why this Eco-Cultural tourism plan was made.
The plan is to establish some simple but attractive eco-friendly Obu-Manuvu structures called “Obu Manuvu Village” at the top end of the community farms in Karilongan, where besides the earlier mentioned nature attractions, cultural activities will be performed that will attract eco-tourist/visitors who want a new experience and adventure in a helpful way both to the Obu Manuvu indigenous community and to the environment.The proposed Eco-Cultural tourism project is an initiative of Obu Manuvu community in Carmen in partnership with the Obu Manuvu Ancestral Domain Management Council, BLGU-Carmen, NCIP and the DENR as part of the 10-years Memorandum of Agreement and with support of the EGIP Foundation and some other project partners.
Series of meetings and presentations were made for the whole month of June in order to acquire suggestions and recommendations and to get consent to partner agencies. Firstly, the project was presented to the Obu-Manuvu Tribal Council headed by Datu Luis Lambac and his council, Datu Joel Unad and datu George Mandahay as part of the Project Implementation Team ( PIT) Meeting. The objective of the meeting was to give an update of the on-going and future project/plans for the community. The proposed community based tourism was also introduced to the tribal council. The three (3) Datus were very thankful for the financial support of EGIP Foundation about initiative of the Obu-Manuvu community and as usual, they also gave their full support and positive thoughts on the project.
The proposed project was then presented to Department of Tourism Regional Office and City Tourism Operation’s Office last June 4 &5, 2018. These two offices hold a major role to the project with regards to giving assistance in promotion and marketing. They will also facilitate the capacity development of Tourism stakeholders and key players through the provision of appropriate capability training. They will also assist in setting-up of systems for the efficient implementation of the Management and Operational Plan. Also, they will be part of the monitoring and evaluation team who will assess the project, quarterly and annually. Aside from the natural, unique and genuine culture of the Obu-manuvu tribe as well as the eco-structures established in the Obu-Manuvu village, the proposed project was identified as great potential to invite both local and international tourists. But aside from availability of infrastructure and other facilities needed by tourists, safety is a major concern of both offices.
To address the concern about security matters, meeting was held at Barangay hall of Carmen last June 8, 2018. It was participated by the BLGU-Carmen headed by Hon. Alfredo Austral Sr. and his council, Public Safety and Security Command Center (PSSCC), Baguio District Police and Philippine Army of the 3rd Infantry Battalion of Malagos District, Davao City. They are part of the monitoring and evaluation team of the project and primarily their role is to provide safety and security to the guests/tourists. The main objective of the meeting is to establish and implement a proper channel of communication with the project management and their office especially with regards to peace andsecurity related matters. The meeting ended with a promising messages from 3rd IB and Baguio District Police Office that they will give their full support in securing the whole area covered by the project and will be active in all activities of the proposed project.
Overall, with the support and recommendations of different partner agencies, the proposed Koontayan ‘To Obu-Manuvu Eco-Cultural Adventure was push through. The Obu-manuvu community is very excited with their new project as it will not only provide incentive to them, but for most, it preserves their genuine cultural resources. As of this writing, more or less 60% of the eco-structures were done and now in partnership with one great travel agency for promotion and marketing both in local and international tourist.
Last May 8, 2018, a Pre-Membership Education Seminar (PMES) was held at Barangay Hall of Carmen, Baguio District, Davao City and facilitated by the Cooperative Development Authority (CDA) representative Mrs. Geralyn C. Lumawag. The objective of this initiative is to have a legal business entity and economic sustainability within the community. This initiative started when the Obu Manuvu community came up with the decision to expand the impacts of the project by continuing/reviving their cooperative. Members decided to contribute a small amount of Php. 200.00 as starting capital to reset and reestablish the small store on retailing general merchandize (sarisari). The store will still sell basic commodities (sari-sari), including rice, canned goods and other food stuff and later on products/handicrafts for the eco-tourism initiative of the project. The intention with the coop store is to become the source of food for the families of the forest guards while they are out in the forest doing patrols and other project related activities. This time though they will limit selling on credit to a very minimum level as past experience shows the unsustainability of selling on credit because of credit sales in the past. The initial available working capital was Php.20,000.00 and was reduced to Php.4,000.00 with some groceries, then eventually razed by fire after the community transfer it to Datu Landim. The community also resolved to have future catering services during community meetings and workshops organized through the cooperative whereby profits will be added to the capital share of their cooperative.
The training was required to all prospective member of a primary cooperative like the “Kolivuungan ‘To Obu Manuvu Marketing Cooperative”, a marketing cooperative that the Obu Manuvu community in Carmen want to establish. The seminar was attended by 35 participants from Obu-Manuvu Community of Carmen headed by Datu Paulino M. Landim Sr., EGIP Foundation staff and some council of the Barangay Carmen. The seminar discussed the significance of establishing a cooperative, types of cooperative, the role of the members, committees and board of directors, as well as explained further the purpose of share capital and membership fees and finally, the list of requirements needed for registration.
EGIP Foundation is assisting the Obu-Manuvu Indigenous Community in Sitio Macatabo, Barangay Carmen in Davao City since 2011. The project is about protecting and rehabilitating remaining forests in their Ancestral Domain in the uplands of Davao City through capacity building and regular foot patrolling in the area. To make the forest protection sustainable in the long run, EGIP, within its capacity, is providing support for sustainable agricultural development and eco-tourism to increase community income that can make resources available for forest protection.
Farming is the main source of income of the IP’s in Sitio Macatabo.The farms of the IP’s are about 2km from their residences and they can only go there using a rough, slippery, unpaved trail through mountainous area with steep slopes. With this, EGIP Foundation collaborated with the Schmitz-Stiftungen Foundation to improve the trail from IP community going to their farms. Schmitz Foundation is a Non-Profit Organization based in Germany who supports mainly on the following three major sectors of development work :(i) Basic education and training (principally in manual trades and job training); (ii) Securing basic living standards promoting small-scale commercial activity (examples: micro-credits schemes, including agriculture and food security); and (iii) Social and charitable projects (examples: work with the handicapped, care for the elderly, rehabilitation of street children or support for disadvantaged minorities).
The objective of the project is to have a good and improved trail that will enable farmers to easily access their farmlands and transport their farm products by concreting the existing trail. An improved farm to market trail will also facilitate eco-tourism as the trail passes a bird watching spot. A concrete foot trail of an approximately 2000 meter long, 1 meter wide and 10 cm thick is the expected output of the project.
The construction of the concrete trail was started last August 2017 and currently on going.As of now, more or less 250 meters concrete trail were done and IPs are continuously getting paid ( food for work ) to do the construction under supervision by EGIP staff.The project is expected to finish by end of April 2018.
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
Intended Nationally Determined Contributions
Communicated to the UNFCCC on October 2015
The Republic of the Philippines is pleased to submit its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions in accordance with Decisions 1/CP.19 and 1/CP.20 of the Conference of Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The submission is anchored on its policy declaration under the Climate Change Law of 2009, as amended in 2012, whereby the State shall cooperate with the global community in the resolution of climate change issues.
The Philippine INDC is premised on the philosophy of pursuing climate change mitigation as a function of adaptation. As a country highly vulnerable to climate and disaster risks, mitigation measures as presented in the INDC will be pursued in line with sustainable development and a low-emission development that promotes inclusive growth. As such, the pursuit of the mitigation measures of the country is conditioned on the financing resources, including technology development and transfer, and capacity building. Furthermore, the support for these initiatives will be substantially provided under a new agreement expected to be forged by the 21st Session of the Conference of Parties in December 2015.
The information presented in this submission is based on available data at the time of the INDC’s formulation. The INDC will be updated as more data become available.
The discussion on adaptation and loss-and-damage is intended to provide part of the critical context of the mitigation proposal in this INDC. The adaptation actions with additional support from international sources will enhance the country’s capacity towards climate resiliency and also its capacity to implement the mitigation options.
The Philippines recognizes its responsibility to contribute its fair share in global climate action, particularly in the effort to realize the ultimate aim of the Convention to avoid dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Based on fair share, the country will commence a broad consultative process to determine the propriety of the need to peak its emissions taking into consideration the country’s economic growth and development. The country however views the need to peak its emissions as an opportunity to transition as early as it can to an efficient, resilient, adaptive, sustainable clean energy-driven economy, and it is determined to do so with partners from the global community.
The full implementation of the Philippine INDC is contingent on the provision of all elements under the means of implementation section. The Philippines still recognizes the leadership role of developed countries in addressing climate change.
The Philippines, an archipelagic country with a population of more than 100 million, is highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and natural hazards. In the Global Climate Risk Index of Germanwatch, the Philippines ranked fifth with respect to the long-term Climate Risk Index (CRI) for the period of 1994 to 2014. In terms of the 2013 CRI, the Philippines is identified as the most affected country (ranked 1st).
While the Philippines is making significant strides toward a more inclusive growth aimed at further reducing poverty and creating more opportunities for shared prosperity, the challenge is to pursue economic development while simultaneously having to deal with the impacts of climate change and natural hazards. Climate change and natural hazards will progressively impact sectors that are strategically important for the growth of the economy, e.g., agriculture, fisheries, and water resource management. Increase in temperature, coupled with changes in precipitation patterns and hydrological regimes, can only exacerbate the country’s existing vulnerabilities, threatening its sustainable development and the survival of future generations of Filipinos.
Recognizing the critical and complex challenges posed by climate change, the Philippines continuously pursues institutional reforms factoring sustainable and responsible use of natural resources, respect for, protection, promotion, and fulfillment, as well as, the full enjoyment of human rights by all, including the indigenous peoples and local communities, gender equality and the full and equal participation of women, intergenerational equity, biodiversity conservation, food and water security. The Philippine government has put in place a comprehensive climate change policy agenda, to wit:
• Passage of the Climate Change Act of 2009 and amended in 2012 which established the Climate Change Commission (CCC) to lead policy development and coordinate, monitor and evaluate climate response. The Cabinet Cluster on Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation (CCAM) was also created to focus on increasing convergence and coordination among government agencies with key roles on adaptation and mitigation. The amended law also led to the introduction of the Peoples’ Survival Fund allocating national budget for adaptation needs of local communities and local governments.
• Enactment of the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Law of 2010 serving as guide to mitigate impacts of disasters and increase resilience in the face of natural disasters.
• Adoption of the National Framework Strategy on Climate Change (NFSCC) in 2010 laid the foundation and roadmap for addressing climate change. It identified adaptation as the anchor strategy and considered mitigation as a function of adaptation.
• Issuance of the National Climate Change Action Plan (NCCAP) in 2011 set the tone for the Government to implement short, medium and long term actions in seven thematic areas of food security, water security, ecological and environmental stability, human security, climate smart industries and services, sustainable energy, and knowledge and capacity development.
• Promulgation of complementary sectoral laws (e.g. Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000, Biofuels Act of 2006 and the Renewable Energy Act of 2008) that led to the increase in the utilization of renewable energy sources, reinforcing and institutionalizing climate change mitigation actions, as well as, creating opportunities for synergy and collaboration for an efficient utilization of limited resources.
• The Philippines is endowed with diverse ecosystems, which are considered extremely important for enabling the country to develop resilience in the face of climate change. Among these are its forests and marine resources, which are seen as contributing to both adaptation and mitigation needs. Marine ecosystems can play a crucial role with its potential on blue carbon. Some of these ecosystem contributions are articulated in the Philippine National REDD Plus Strategy and
the recently updated Philippine Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. The Philippine legislature is poised to declare by law 97 protected areas as national parks under the Expanded National Integrated Protected Areas Systems, which could contribute to increasing resiliency against climate change.
PLANNING PROCESS OF THE INDC
The Planning for the Philippine INDC is consistent with the Philippine Development Plan, the National Framework Strategy on Climate Change, the National Climate Change Action Plan and the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Plan. These plans and the INDC were developed through exhaustive, inclusive and participatory processes.
• Consultations on the preparation of the INDCs were organized and conducted with relevant government agencies including the Office of the President, the Senate and House of Representatives.
• Internationally accepted tools and methodologies were used by government agencies to identify possible mitigation options as input to the INDC.
• Consultations were also conducted with the civil society and the relevant business sectors.
The Philippines intends to undertake GHG (CO2e) emissions reduction of about 70% by 2030 relative to its BAU scenario of 2000-2030. Reduction of CO2e emissions will come from energy, transport, waste, forestry and industry sectors. The mitigation contribution is conditioned on the extent of financial resources, including technology development & transfer, and capacity building, that will be made available to the Philippines.
In the identification and selection of mitigation options, national circumstances particularly the country’s climate vulnerabilities and capacity to implement, were among the critical determinant factors.
• For the Baseline scenario, historical GDP from 2010 – 2014 and an annual average of 6.5% for 2015 – 2030
• Average annual population growth of 1.85%
• Loss-and-Damages from climate change and extreme events will not require substantial diversion of resources for rehabilitation and reconstruction thereby affecting development targets as well as mitigation commitments under this INDC.
• Identified co-benefits for mitigation options such as environmental and socio-economic benefits are realized.
• Climate projections were considered in the assessment of mitigation options
Methodology and Tools
• 2006 IPCC guidelines for the GHG inventory
• Tools used
o 2006 IPCC software
o Agriculture and Land Use (ALU) Software for agriculture, forestry and other land uses
o Long Range Energy Alternative Planning (LEAP)
o Multi-criteria Analysis (MCA)
• Assessments conducted
o Integration of climate change considerations in the assessment such as analysis of climate projections’ impacts on hydropower potential as an RE option for mitigation.
o Cost-benefit Analysis including the Marginal Abatement Cost Curve until 2030 for sectors with mitigation potential
o Multi-criteria Analysis for prioritizing mitigation actions
Recognizing the vulnerability of the country to the impacts of climate change, the State prioritizes adaptation and adopts it as the anchor strategy as espoused by the National Framework Strategy on Climate Change and subsequently elaborated in its National Climate Change Action Plan.
The Philippines strives to ensure that climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction are mainstreamed and integrated into the country’s plans and programs at all levels. The path towards a low emission development will require climate resilience and improved adaptive capacity. Financial resources, technology transfer and capacity building support for adaptation will ensure that the country’s committed mitigation INDC will be attained. The following priority measures, among others, would need such identified implementation support:
1. Institutional and system strengthening for downscaling climate change models, climate scenario-building, climate monitoring and observation;
2. Roll-out of science-based climate/disaster risk and vulnerability assessment process as the basis for mainstreaming climate and disaster risks reduction in development plans, programs and projects;
3. Development of climate and disaster-resilient ecosystem(s);
4. Enhancement of climate and disaster-resilience of key sectors – agriculture, water and health;
5. Systematic transition to a climate and disaster-resilient social and economic growth; and
6. Research and development on climate change, extremes and impacts for improved risk assessment and management.
LOSS AND DAMAGE
The basic foundation for prioritizing adaptation measures is to ensure that loss and damage from climate change and extreme events are minimized to ensure achievement of national development targets through building capacities and enhancing resilience to avoid and mitigate losses in a sustainable manner.
The Philippine INDC assumes that Loss-and-Damages from climate change and extreme events will not require diversion of substantial resources for rehabilitation and reconstruction thereby adversely affecting the country’s capacity to meet national development targets as well as mitigation commitments under this INDC.
MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION
The Philippines is already undertaking initiatives to mainstream and institutionalize climate change adaptation and mitigation into the plans and programs of the government as reflected in government expenditures. The Philippine government has installed a system for tagging its expenditure for climate change adaptation and mitigation and is envisioned to use this system for its annual budgeting process starting 2015.
Highlighting the vulnerability of the country, public financing will prioritize adaptation to reduce vulnerability and risks to the community, at the same time providing a policy environment that will enable participation of the private sector to optimize mitigation opportunities and reduce business risks towards a climate smart development.
Full implementation of the Philippines’ INDC requires support in the form of adequate, predictable and sustainable financing.
Likewise, implementation of both national development targets and mitigation initiatives necessitate the continuous development and strengthening of the country’s capabilities and capacities. External assistance would be required to enable the Philippines to develop and adopt the most appropriate technologies to improve adaptive capacities and resilience. Capacity and capability are needed in the field of climate and natural hazard modeling, science-based risk and vulnerability assessment as well as risk management measures including risk sharing and risk transfer mechanisms.
Technology transfers and innovations are needed to support adaptation and minimization of loss-and-damages as well as enhanced capacity for mitigation. Technical inputs and assistance are critical for certain sectors such as grid efficiency improvement, standard development for energy and water efficiency, cost-effective renewable energy, alternative or high-efficiency technology for conventional power generation, among others.
The Initial INDC submission of the Philippines is based on current available data. This INDC will be updated as more data become available. It is also conditional on the agreement to be reached by Parties. In finalizing and updating these INDCs, after the Paris agreement is adopted, the Philippines will be guided by best practices in participatory and consultative decision-making involving all concerned agencies, sectors, and stakeholders. These processes must be linked to a robust means of implementation, which include financial support, technology development and transfer, and capacity building.
His Excellency Benigno S. Aquino III
President of the Philippines
for the leaders event of the 21st Conference of Parties in Paris, France
[Delivered on November 30, 2015]
Excellencies, last February, our good friend President Hollande and I launched the Manila Call to Action on Climate Change. At the heart of this call is the stark reality that countries like the Philippines bear a disproportionate amount of the burden when it comes to climate change. The appeal we made in Manila asks all peoples to act and come to an agreement that allows all voices to be heard, and takes into consideration our particular situations as nations.
As President of a nation increasingly affected by the new normal, I believe the real challenge begins with an accounting of capacities: How do we ask everyone to contribute, and how do we ask those with more to help out those with less? Consider the case of the most vulnerable countries, like the developing island state of Grenada, which sustained damages that amounted to more than 200 percent of its GDP in 2004. If they lose so much, then their capacity to contribute in our efforts is also dramatically diminished. I am told that the economic costs of climate change amount to 44.9 billion dollars annually for the Vulnerable 20 (V20) countries. Inaction will cost us even more, as this number is set to grow almost tenfold by 2030, amounting to 400 billion dollars.
We are also told that, since 2010, on an annual basis, climate injustice has claimed more than 50,000 lives from V20 countries—and this number will increase exponentially in the near future. Consider further the danger faced by island-nations such as Kiribati, Tuvalu, and the Maldives, whose existence is threatened by rising water levels. Their extinction will be a certainty, unless we pursue realizable goals that acknowledge that, for some nations, the fight against climate change is a matter of survival.
In our own experience in the Philippines, we have been working to break the vicious cycle of destruction and reconstruction, where affected locales, especially our coastal communities, slide back into an impoverished state with one calamity. The primary challenge has been to move our countrymen to less vulnerable areas, on the assumption that such do exist—or to make interventions that mitigate the impacts of climate change. We are indeed hard pressed to build back better especially in the aftermath of Haiyan, and I must submit: We cannot do this in isolation.
Let me point out, however, that despite our fiscal limitations, and despite the fact that we have one of the smallest carbon footprints in the world, the Philippines continues to pursue vital reforms to address climate change; and I say that we are willing to share our experiences, knowledge, and best practices. We have a massive re-greening program. We started in 2011; the goal is to plant 1.5 billion trees on 1.5 million hectares by next year. Upon completion, this would translate to an absorption capacity of 30 million tons of carbon annually. To this end, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, in its Global Forest Resources Assessment for 2015, has named our country as one of the top five nations with the greatest annual forest area gain.
We have also intensified our anti-illegal logging campaign, reducing by 88 percent the number of municipalities and cities in my country considered to be illegal logging hotspots. We are likewise increasing the share of renewables in our energy mix, which now accounts for 33 percent of the mix. We have put in place the policies and legislation, and allocated the funds to address climate change as far as our resources will allow. This year alone, about 5 percent of our total budget was allocated for climate change. Furthermore: Just this October, the Philippines submitted its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions or INDC, committing our country to reducing our greenhouse gas emissions conditionally by 70 percent by 2030. We are ready to do our part, if other nations demonstrate support in terms of finance, technology development, and capacity building.
Today, the Philippines, with the rest of the Climate Vulnerable Forum, a group that will soon grow to represent at least 1 billion people, makes our case. In the name of all our citizens, we ask you to give our proposal for more climate financing for developing countries the consideration it deserves. We likewise seek your support as the Climate Vulnerable Forum finalizes the Manila-Paris Declaration, which presents our aspirations for a world that is resilient and just, one where no one is left behind.
Excellencies, ladies and gentlemen, what our nations failed to do in Copenhagen in 2009, we must achieve here in Paris in 2015. It is time for a fair consensus to be finally reached. Our collective security depends on our ability to act. We must therefore move beyond recrimination, learn from the past, and work hand in hand to safeguard the welfare of our citizens and of the many generations to come. In this effort, no one is exempt; all must contribute.
Thank you and good day.
Forest Protection and Rehabilitation cum Livelihood Project
within the Obu-Manuvu Ancestral Domain at Sitio Macatabo,
Brgy. Carmen, Davao City
2nd Quarter Report
Joshua L. Donato and Jayson C. Ibañez1
Cover Photo: The Obu-Manuvu forest guard poses with their Forest Protection Officer and two foreign volunteers during their regular monthly monitoring and patrolling (JLD/PEF).
For the past ten (10) months since the launching of the third phase of the Forest Protection and Rehabilitation cum Livelihood project within the Obu Manuvu Ancestral Domain in Sitio Macatabo Brgy. Carmen, Davao, the activities and the work of Obu Manuvu indigenous community and forest guards were very successful. The project rests on the same foundational assumptions and ultimate goals: that meeting biodiversity conservation and human needs need not to be limited. With this, we focused this year’s implementation on building local capacities and encouraging self-governance. With the new skill set and knowledge that they gain, we foresee genuine empowerment.
Together with investing on sustainable livelihoods to diversify income sources, the
project also helps alleviate poverty.
As of this writing, the PEF and the community have accomplished more than 50% of project activities. This report highlights was has been accomplished so far for the months of July-October 2015.
Project Facilitation and Management
Part of the work of Datu Paulino Landim and Bae Nilda Landim on the other hand focused on representing the community during tribal council meetings, LGU meetings, DCWD meetings, BLGU meetings and other public functions that concerns the IP’s. The couple was also active in facilitating planning for the proposed eco-tourism venture within the ancestral domain. In particular, they secured the documentary and other requirements so EGIP could purchase the lands of the Dayatdayatan’s for eco-tourism. They were also responsible for filing law suits against illegal loggers and land grabbers. As of this moment, two cases has been filed, one case of illegal logging and two cases of land grabbers. The agencies to whom the cases were reported to are the NCIP, DENR, CENRO-West, PNP and the BLGU-Carmen. Formal complaints and affidavits have been lodged and we are awaiting action from the concerned agencies. Project implementation for this phase was a success over-all. Indigenous Project Leaders Datu Paulino Landim and Bae Nilda Landim have effectively performance their project and political governance functions. The PEF maintained its facilitating role through Forest Protection Officer Joshua Donato, but he was also assisted by two Indigenous project officers. One of the Indigenous staff is Mr. Jovert Aggas who focuses on the environmental management component of the project (i.e. biodiversity monitoring, and species and site protection). Ms. Cresencia Manando-on on the other hand focused on Indigenous development concerns, such as economic development and governance (i.e. farm development at the Karilongan community farms, Almaciga enterprise feasibility studies, cooperative development and other NTFP initiatives).
We continued to strengthen local capacity for organizational governance. We continue to facilitate quarterly community assemblies as an exercise on transparency and participatory decision-making. We also continue to broker partnerships on behalf of the organization. Other specific activities include assistance with documenting cases of illegal logging, encroachment and land-grabbing within the domain, filing of cases and making follow-ups.
In addition, we also provided technical assistance advise in the maintenance and upkeep of the community nursery and their community farms at Karilongan. We engaged volunteer technicians and foresters to assist them. They were assisted as well with respect to documenting their work, including writing reports and letters using their desktop computer. We have also engaged volunteers during weekends.
Biodiversity Research, Monitoring and Management
Biodiversity monitoring and patrolling has been the effective way of collecting reliable and up-to date information on the state of the Obu-Manuvu ancestral forest resources such as forest area change, biomass inventory, assessment of floral and faunal species and others. This has been the backbone of the project which aims to protect their remaining forest from several forest and wildlife threats. This has been also the effective approach not only on saving Philippine Eagles and other species but also conserving their natural habitat.
Data on Obu-Manuvu forest guard’s regular foot monitoring and patrolling have been accumulated, many lessons have been learned, several milestones achieved and new protocol has been refined to monitor the status of the biodiversity in the area as well as minimize the disturbance of floral and faunal species that naturally thrive in.
For this stage, four major activities were done so far by the Obu Manuvu forest guards namely; (1) monitoring the threats “hot spot” around their ancestral domain, (2) constructing trails (soft and hard “loop” trails) from Sitio Macatabo to their community farms in Karilongan Area as farm-to-market trail and for possible cultural/eco-tourism venture project sites , (3) monitoring of flora and fauna key species and features within the ancestral domain using SMART-LAWIN System and (4) continuous monitoring of released Philippine Eagle “Matatag”. The following are the details of the said activities:
1. Monitoring of threats “hot spots” on Obu-Manuvu Ancestral Forest
The Obu-Manuvu forest guards identified and pin pointed threats “hot spots” around their ancestral domain where illegal activities such as timber poaching, land grabbing, illegal logging, encroachment of non-Indigenous settlers, illegal wildlife hunting and trapping, and kaingin are rampant and presently occurred. Those “hot spots” are part of their foot patrols route where they will spend time and efforts concentrating in controlling, preventing or mitigating threats within their ancestral domain.
Based on the result of the foot monitoring and patrolling, almost 70% of the forest and wildlife threats has been stopped, controlled, prevented and mitigated. For the remaining threats, the Forest Protection and Management Committee (FPMC) has apprehended and filed cases to the illegal loggers, encroachers and land grabbers. They submitted a complain/report with attached photos to the concerned agencies such as DENR, NCIP, Obu-Manuvu Tribal Council, City Government of Davao and BLGU-Carmen. As of this writing, those cases are still on the process of investigation though the forest guards believed that concrete actions will be dealt to those wrong doers.
As of now, aside from the bureaucracy system that our government have in terms of responding to the cases they have filed, the unending encroachment of non-IPs, illegal harvesting of rattans and illegal hunting/trapping are some unresolved problems around their ancestral domain forest though appropriate actions are now properly taken by the Forest Protection and Management Committee (FPMC) to the proper authorities and for effective lobbying. They are still investigating who did such actions and settle the issues.
2. Construction of Trails
One of the main components for this year’s project was the maintenance of the ancestral domain in preparation for cultural/eco-tourism activities. Building and maintaining trails, observation posts, mark and prepare trails (soft and hard “loop” trails) and camp sites for the eco-tourism venture are some activities that the FPMC and Obu-Manuvu forest guards focused on. As proposed and requested by the majority of the members of the community to Forest Protection and Management Committee, constructing of trails from Sitio Macatabo to Karilongan Area where most of the member of Obu Manuvu community established their farms (common access area) are their priority since most of them find difficult to transport their farm products from their farm going to the market road (Sitio Macatabo). The hard and loop trails were constructed starting along the riparian forest of Panigan River going to their community farm where they also established their agro-forestry nursery and going down again passing Karilongan Area.
This hard and loop trails were also intended in preparation for eco-tourism activities such as birdwatching, mountain climbing, forest walk and farm and nursery visits. According to Mr. Adrian and Trinket Constantino- a husband-and-wife team who both have an extensive experience of birdwatching in the country and are co-founders of Birding Adventure Philippines, the area was potential as birding site because aside of the presence of Philippine eagle, there are also some endemic birds such as the three species of hornbills. They visited the area during the birdwatching training with PEF staff, volunteers and community partners sponsored by DOT-ADB Canada. They also added that area was good because of the existing cultural practices and traditions that the Obu-Manuvu community have.
The status of the biodiversity in the Obu-Manuvu Ancestral Domain forest and the refinement of the new monitoring protocol have been effective so far for the past ten months of biodiversity monitoring and assessment. This time, forest patrols specifically the monitoring of flora and fauna was complemented by the use of SMART-LAWIN (Spatial Monitoring and Reporting Tool/Landscape and Wildlife Indicators) monitoring schemes in partnership with B+Wiser Philippines and was supported by USAID and DENR. This automated system of monitoring uses new technology in identifying culturally important and triggers species and takes video recordings and pin point threat “hotspots” within the domain. Tables below showed the list of flora and faunal species (birds and mammals) documented using SMART-LAWIN monitoring system in Obu-Manuvu Ancestral Domain in Brgy. Carmen:Table 1. List of Culturally Important and Trigger species of Birds documented in Obu-Manuvu Ancestral Domain in Brgy. Carmen using SMART-LAWIN monitoring system.
|Common Name||Local Name||Scientific Name||Status||No.of Individuals|
|Apo Myna||Tugkaling||Basilornis miranda||Near Threatened||2|
|Philippine Fairy Bluebird||Borowing||Irena cyanogastra||Near Threatened||1|
|Short-crested Monarch||Kalinsawi||Hypothymis helenae||Near Threatened||3|
|Philippine Eagle||Banog||Pithecophaga jefferyi||Critically Endangered||0|
|White-eared Brown Dove||Alimukon||Phapitreron leucotis||Least Concern/Culturally Important||13|
|Southern Rufous Hornbill||Kalyawa||Buceros mindanensis||Vulnerable||6|
|Writhed Hornbill||Ong-ngik||Rhabdotorrhinus leucocephalus||Near Threatened||2|
|South Philippine Hawk Eagle||Kapp’i||Nisaetus pinskeri||Endangered||2|
Table 2. List of Culturally Important and Trigger species of Mammals documented in Obu-Manuvu Ancestral Domain in Brgy. Carmen using SMART-LAWIN monitoring system.
|Common Name||Local Name||Scientific Name||Status||No.of Individuals|
|Philippine Warty Pig||Baboy Mabun’os||Sus philippensis||Vulnerable||8|
|Philippine Deer||Sa’arung/Binaw||Rusa marianna||Vulnerable||2|
|Philippine Flying Lemur||Kaa’bah/Kagwang||Cynocephalus volans||Least Concern||1|
|Mindanao Tree Shrew||Tingkul’let/Salumbaboy||Urogale everetti||Least Concern||4|
|Mindanao Tree Squirrel||Laksoy/Kadsik||Sundasciurus mindanensis||No information yet||2|
|Malay Civet||Musang/Marang||Viverra tangalunga||Least Concern||4|
Table 3. List of Culturally Important and Trigger species of Plants documented in Obu-Manuvu Ancestral Domain in Brgy. Carmen using SMART-LAWIN monitoring system.
|Common Name||Local Name||Scientific Name||Status||No.of Individuals|
|Philippine Maple||Gutok-kasili||Acer laurinum||Vulnerable||32|
|Philippine Cinnamon||Kalingag/Kaningag||Cinnamomum mercadoi||Vulnerable||41|
|Igem||Igim||Dacrycarpus cumingii||Least Concern||21|
|Tanguile||Bau’rong||Shorea polysperma||Critically Endangered||11|
|Mayapis||Lawaang Pula||Shorea palosapis||Critically Endangered||8|
|Rattan||Uway||Calamus sp.||Least concern||105|
Biodiversity Monitoring and Assessment using SMART-LAWIN monitoring system results strongly indicate the presence of substantial forest biodiversity within the Obu- Manuvu ancestral domain. All of the species listed as culturally important and trigger species for biodiversity conservation are observed in the area except the Philippine Eagle which is very usual since even the monitoring team saw the eagle in the area occasionally.
For bird species (See Table 1 above), the white-eared brown dove (Phapitreron leucotis) is the most common species seen and heard as expected. This is very abundant in the area and culturally important species to the tribe as sources of different omens or signs. The calls of white-eared brown dove locally known as “Alimukon” would sign whether the hunter will proceed with his hunting trip or not. Forest guards typically identify the bird with their native or local names. Some can also identify birds through their calls. They used also the “Bird Guide of the Philippines by Kennedy et.al as reference as well as the photographic guides printed by PEF.
Meanwhile, mammals, in particular, were hard to find because they are too sensitive and tend to flee at the sight of people. In this case, forest guards used indicators of their presence, such as faecal droppings, leftovers in feeding grounds, wallows, roosting sites, hoof tracks, and any animal derivatives like hair and bones. These indicators were photographed and recorded. Other species that were hard to identify, such as rodents and bats encountered at night, were also noted. Other traits such as their estimated size, length, color and other distinct features were also described. For species of mammals (See Table 2 above), the existence of Philippine Warty Pig (Sus philippinensis) was very common where hoof tracks are almost seen everywhere inside the domain. This was also supported by the information and observation of one of our Forest Guard Mr. Loreto Bangcas, an Obu-Manuvu elder and past hunter during one of our forest patrols. According to him, there was a massive increase of the presence of the wild boar in their domain since foot monitoring and patrolling started which showed evidence that they are now protected from illegal hunting that uses hand-made air guns and other non-traditional methods.
For plant species (See Table 3 above), some of these plants are used as herbal medicine, source of food, source of livelihood, home decorations and some are considered valuable to their tribe as symbol of their culture. Forest guards can identify these plants with their native or local names. They also used photographic guides printed by PEF. Rattan (Calamus sp.) and Almasiga (Agathis philippinensis) are the most copious species inside their ancestral forest. But, sad to say, there are also the most prone to illegal harvesting and cutting. Evidences of illegal harvesting of rattan, past timber coaching and cutting was also observed during foot patrols.
- Monitoring of Released Philippine Eagle “Matatag”
The Obu-Manuvu forest guards are now very active and continue their monitoring of the instrumented released Philippine eagle using radio and satellite telemetry techniques, observation and assessment of his condition, securing the safety of the bird within their ancestral forest as part of their .management of focal species. Aside from this, they also monitor some part of their ancestral forest daily with logistic and technical support from other funding agencies. With this initiative, they earn additional income while continuing their monitoring around their domain. They earned 300 per day for monitoring of released Philippine Eagle named “Matatag”.
With the tragic death of the Philippine Eagle “Pamana” in the UNESCO World Heritage Site Mount Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary (MHRWS) in Davao Oriental last August 2015, this brought controversy in wildlife protection not only to the conservation community but to the entire country. This has challenged also to the Obu-Manuvu forest guards team to strengthen their efforts in looking after “Matatag” and ensuring his survival in the wild. With the supervision of PEF Field Biologists and volunteers, they intently monitor Matatag after almost a year of being released in Barangay Carmen, Davao City. Matatag is found approaching Barangay Tambobong where he was rescued with a gunshot wound in April 2011. With this alarming observation, they also intensified the information and education campaigns (IEC) in the area to inform the locals about the presence of Matatag. They also continue to conduct house-to house IEC and put some posters and tarpaulins in some strategic places.
They plan to monitor Matatag until he will able to find his mate/partner and until his safety is secured in the area.
Sustainable Livelihood and Agriculture
In order to protect and conserve their ancestral forest and the Philippine eagle, the project also recognized the need of the whole Obu-Manuvu Indigenous community and how they will provide the needs of their families (food, shelter, health and education). To attain this goal, generating supplemental and biodiversity-friendly sources income is part of the design of this year’s phase. Apart from this, this year’s phase also aim to find viable sources of income for a conservation fund that will be used to sustain protection and management activities within Obu Manuvu AD forest.
For this phase, backyard gardening and establishment of nursery for cacao seedlings is the focused of the Obu Manuvu community. As of this writing, 5000 cacao seedlings are already planted in their nursery in Karilongan area. This will be distributed to 55 farmers of Obu Manuvu community before the end of November this year in addition to their 95 banana each last quarter. The project also provides organic fertilizer (chicken dung) to their planted banana last month. Meanwhile, the community backyard garden which was planted with green onion in Macatabo nursery was now transferred in Karilongan area and it will be harvested later this month. They plan to sell the part of the harvest for the maintenance of their nursery while distribute and replant the remaining green onions.
In addition, for this year’s phase, the project aims to provide a direct response to the linked problems of rural poverty and forest degradation. The project will focus on at least two enterprises that have gained a reputation as being biodiversity friendly: (i) Almaciga resin enterprise and (ii) community-based eco- and cultural tourism. Last September 21-23, two Obu-Manuvu forest guards accompanied by their Forest Protection Officer attended an Almasiga Resin Enterprise Summit in Barangay Upper Tibanban in Governor Generoso, Davao Oriental where Almasiga resin enterprise initiative was successfully and currently done. They promised to provide technical assistance at no cost to this project and will conduct an actual survey in the area. As of now, the priority is to start a formal (yet cost-effective) Feasibility Study about Almaciga resin enterprise within the Obu Manuvu ancestral domain. For community-based eco- and cultural tourism, the Indigenous Project Managers are facilitating the acquiring of Dayatdayatan’s property such as processing the right of way of the lot and communicating with BLGU-Carmen for some documents needed to buy the lot.
Engaging local staff increases the chances of success for these projects because they share the same culture and values of the community, it is easier for the local organizers to express information and muster support from the community. It also aims to develop and strengthen the skills, instincts, abilities, processes and resources that the communities needs in order to survive, adapt, and thrive in the fast-changing world.
For this project, local project staff will be trained, engaged and remunerated by the PEF staff. Indigenous project managers Datu Paulino Landim Sr. and Bae Nilda Landim will be also engaged and capacitated to oversee, supervise and manage day-to-day project activities. This initiative (actively engaging and coaching locals) is part of the strategy to build local capacity in preparation for the eventual “turning over” of project management over to the community in the near future.
As of this quarter, the local community staff has been very active and participative in all coaching and training activities done by PEF. For local staffs who is assigned for environmental management component, the PEF Forest Protection Officer personally did a hands-on training on the proper way of biodiversity monitoring, how to organize forest patrols, what to do during the foot patrolling, teaching the proper protocol on monitoring and how to use the tablet for SMART-LAWIN monitoring system. On the other hand, the local staffs who is assigned for enterprise development and governance was very active in managing the activities in the development of farms in Karilongan. She is also tasked to oversee the community backyard garden project, establishment of nursery and taking good care of the development intended for cultural/eco-tourism activities such the trails and camp sites. Both local staff including project managers was also taught how to facilitate meetings, evaluations and community assemblies. They are also taught how to make a report.
A simultaneous monitoring of a released Philippine Eagle is also being undertaken by three forest guards at a time. They were actively involved in monitoring the instrumented eagle using radio and satellite telemetry techniques, observation of the focal species as good conservation trigger species, and observing the status of the forest where eagles usually go where they can complement efforts to prevent destructive activities within the domain. Another thing is, PEF also invited some members of the Obu-Manuvu community for some trainings conducted that includes birdwatching training and cultural dances and enhancement training in preparation also for their cultural and eco-tourism venture of the project.
Below are the priority activities for next quarter of the project:
- Distribution and planting of cacao seeds of 55 farmers of Obu-Manuvu community.
- Plant other perennial crops after they harvest the green onion in their backyard garden.
- Training on tapping of Almasiga resins.
- Training on cooperative development.
- Continue to follow-up with the NCIP and DENR for the re-deputation of the forest guards.
- Start a formal (yet cost-effective) Feasibility Study about Almaciga resin enterprise within the Obu Manuvu ancestral domain.
- Follow-up on a filed cases against violators (e.g., recent encroachment in Kalatong and Tabak Area and land grabbing case in Karilongan area) caught by forest guards.
- Follow-up on the eco-tourism venture (Dayatdayatan’s property e.g. right of way dilemma)
- Continue on forest monitoring/patrolling using tablet donated by B+Wiser Philippines in the other part of the domain.
- Maintaining the trails in Karilongan area for possible test run of eco-tourism venture including birdwatching, forest walks and farm and nursery visits.
- Testing of use of conservation drone to complement foot patrolling and facilitate court cases with definite proof of violations.
We would like to extend our gratitude to Datu Paulino Landim, to the officers of FPMC, to the 38 forest guards and to the 55 families of Obu-Manuvu community who are very supportive throughout the whole duration of the project. We are likewise indebted to Unified Obu Manuvu Tribal Council of Elders/Leaders, Ancestral Domain Management Office (ADMO), NCIP and the Barangay Council of Barangay Carmen headed by Barangay Captain Alfredo Austral for their usual support for the project specifically in helping the Obu-Manuvu community in Dayatdayatan case. The 37th IB for our security during our forest patrols.
We are also thankful to Stefanie Grace Ang, Mark Johann Mabalot, Tristan Seranillos, Rosemarie Badillo of FPE-USEP, Alejandro Legor and David Perez of Spain for assisting the community in agro-forestry project and during the quarterly biodiversity monitoring and assessment. We are also indebted to B+Wiser-USAID, Flora and Fauna International (FFI) and DENR for allowing the Obu-Manuvu forest guards to use the tablet for SMART-LAWIN monitoring system.
This project was supported by EGIP Foundation.